This commit is contained in:
Juhani Krekelä 2022-01-19 20:38:22 +02:00
commit 58dfcec0cd
7 changed files with 306 additions and 0 deletions

.gitignore vendored Normal file
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Makefile Normal file
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all: ps2-kbtest.iso
ps2-kbtest.iso: grub.cfg ps2-kbtest.kernel
mkdir -p isodir/boot/grub
cp ps2-kbtest.kernel isodir/boot/ps2-kbtest.kernel
cp grub.cfg isodir/boot/grub/grub.cfg
grub-mkrescue -o ps2-kbtest.iso isodir
ps2-kbtest.kernel: boot.o kernel.o
i686-elf-gcc -T linker.ld -o ps2-kbtest.kernel -ffreestanding -O2 -nostdlib boot.o kernel.o -lgcc
boot.o: boot.s
i686-elf-as boot.s -o boot.o
kernel.o: kernel.c
i686-elf-gcc -c kernel.c -o kernel.o -std=gnu99 -ffreestanding -O2 -Wall -Wextra
rm -rf boot.o kernel.o ps2-kbtest.kernel ps2-kbtest.iso isodir/
distclean: clean
run: ps2-kbtest.iso
qemu-system-i386 -accel kvm -cdrom ps2-kbtest.iso
.PHONY: all clean distclean run

boot.s Normal file
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/* Based on Bare Bones tutorial on OSDev wiki */
/* Declare constants for the multiboot header. */
.set ALIGN, 1<<0 /* align loaded modules on page boundaries */
.set MEMINFO, 1<<1 /* provide memory map */
.set FLAGS, ALIGN | MEMINFO /* this is the Multiboot 'flag' field */
.set MAGIC, 0x1BADB002 /* 'magic number' lets bootloader find the header */
.set CHECKSUM, -(MAGIC + FLAGS) /* checksum of above, to prove we are multiboot */
Declare a multiboot header that marks the program as a kernel. These are magic
values that are documented in the multiboot standard. The bootloader will
search for this signature in the first 8 KiB of the kernel file, aligned at a
32-bit boundary. The signature is in its own section so the header can be
forced to be within the first 8 KiB of the kernel file.
.section .multiboot
.align 4
.long MAGIC
.long FLAGS
The multiboot standard does not define the value of the stack pointer register
(esp) and it is up to the kernel to provide a stack. This allocates room for a
small stack by creating a symbol at the bottom of it, then allocating 16384
bytes for it, and finally creating a symbol at the top. The stack grows
downwards on x86. The stack is in its own section so it can be marked nobits,
which means the kernel file is smaller because it does not contain an
uninitialized stack. The stack on x86 must be 16-byte aligned according to the
System V ABI standard and de-facto extensions. The compiler will assume the
stack is properly aligned and failure to align the stack will result in
undefined behavior.
.section .bss
.align 16
.skip 16384 # 16 KiB
The linker script specifies _start as the entry point to the kernel and the
bootloader will jump to this position once the kernel has been loaded. It
doesn't make sense to return from this function as the bootloader is gone.
.section .text
.global _start
.type _start, @function
The bootloader has loaded us into 32-bit protected mode on a x86
machine. Interrupts are disabled. Paging is disabled. The processor
state is as defined in the multiboot standard. The kernel has full
control of the CPU. The kernel can only make use of hardware features
and any code it provides as part of itself. There's no printf
function, unless the kernel provides its own <stdio.h> header and a
printf implementation. There are no security restrictions, no
safeguards, no debugging mechanisms, only what the kernel provides
itself. It has absolute and complete power over the
To set up a stack, we set the esp register to point to the top of the
stack (as it grows downwards on x86 systems). This is necessarily done
in assembly as languages such as C cannot function without a stack.
mov $stack_top, %esp
This is a good place to initialize crucial processor state before the
high-level kernel is entered. It's best to minimize the early
environment where crucial features are offline. Note that the
processor is not fully initialized yet: Features such as floating
point instructions and instruction set extensions are not initialized
yet. The GDT should be loaded here. Paging should be enabled here.
C++ features such as global constructors and exceptions will require
runtime support to work as well.
Enter the high-level kernel. The ABI requires the stack is 16-byte
aligned at the time of the call instruction (which afterwards pushes
the return pointer of size 4 bytes). The stack was originally 16-byte
aligned above and we've pushed a multiple of 16 bytes to the
stack since (pushed 0 bytes so far), so the alignment has thus been
preserved and the call is well defined.
call kernel_main
If the system has nothing more to do, put the computer into an
infinite loop. To do that:
1) Disable interrupts with cli (clear interrupt enable in eflags).
They are already disabled by the bootloader, so this is not needed.
Mind that you might later enable interrupts and return from
kernel_main (which is sort of nonsensical to do).
2) Wait for the next interrupt to arrive with hlt (halt instruction).
Since they are disabled, this will lock up the computer.
3) Jump to the hlt instruction if it ever wakes up due to a
non-maskable interrupt occurring or due to system management mode.
1: hlt
jmp 1b
Set the size of the _start symbol to the current location '.' minus its start.
This is useful when debugging or when you implement call tracing.
.size _start, . - _start

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grub.cfg Normal file
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menuentry "ps2 kbtest" {
multiboot /boot/ps2-kbtest.kernel

kernel.c Normal file
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/* Based on Bare Bones tutorial on OSDev wiki */
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdint.h>
/* Check if the compiler thinks you are targeting the wrong operating system. */
#if defined(__linux__)
#error "You are not using a cross-compiler, you will most certainly run into trouble"
/* This tutorial will only work for the 32-bit ix86 targets. */
#if !defined(__i386__)
#error "This tutorial needs to be compiled with a ix86-elf compiler"
/* Hardware text mode color constants. */
enum vga_color {
static inline uint8_t vga_entry_color(enum vga_color fg, enum vga_color bg)
return fg | bg << 4;
static inline uint16_t vga_entry(unsigned char uc, uint8_t color)
return (uint16_t) uc | (uint16_t) color << 8;
size_t strlen(const char* str)
size_t len = 0;
while (str[len])
return len;
static const size_t VGA_WIDTH = 80;
static const size_t VGA_HEIGHT = 25;
size_t terminal_row;
size_t terminal_column;
uint8_t terminal_color;
uint16_t* terminal_buffer;
void terminal_initialize(void)
terminal_row = 0;
terminal_column = 0;
terminal_color = vga_entry_color(VGA_COLOR_LIGHT_GREY, VGA_COLOR_BLACK);
terminal_buffer = (uint16_t*) 0xB8000;
for (size_t y = 0; y < VGA_HEIGHT; y++) {
for (size_t x = 0; x < VGA_WIDTH; x++) {
const size_t index = y * VGA_WIDTH + x;
terminal_buffer[index] = vga_entry(' ', terminal_color);
void terminal_setcolor(uint8_t color)
terminal_color = color;
void terminal_putentryat(char c, uint8_t color, size_t x, size_t y)
const size_t index = y * VGA_WIDTH + x;
terminal_buffer[index] = vga_entry(c, color);
void terminal_putchar(char c)
terminal_putentryat(c, terminal_color, terminal_column, terminal_row);
if (++terminal_column == VGA_WIDTH) {
terminal_column = 0;
if (++terminal_row == VGA_HEIGHT)
terminal_row = 0;
void terminal_write(const char* data, size_t size)
for (size_t i = 0; i < size; i++)
void terminal_writestring(const char* data)
terminal_write(data, strlen(data));
void kernel_main(void)
/* Initialize terminal interface */
/* Newline support is left as an exercise. */
terminal_writestring("Hello, kernel World!\n");

linker.ld Normal file
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/* Based on Bare Bones tutorial on OSDev wiki */
/* The bootloader will look at this image and start execution at the symbol
designated as the entry point. */
/* Tell where the various sections of the object files will be put in the final
kernel image. */
/* Begin putting sections at 1 MiB, a conventional place for kernels to be
loaded at by the bootloader. */
. = 1M;
/* First put the multiboot header, as it is required to be put very early
early in the image or the bootloader won't recognize the file format.
Next we'll put the .text section. */
.text BLOCK(4K) : ALIGN(4K)
/* Read-only data. */
.rodata BLOCK(4K) : ALIGN(4K)
/* Read-write data (initialized) */
.data BLOCK(4K) : ALIGN(4K)
/* Read-write data (uninitialized) and stack */
.bss BLOCK(4K) : ALIGN(4K)
/* The compiler may produce other sections, by default it will put them in
a segment with the same name. Simply add stuff here as needed. */